Maumere Tsunami

The events of December 12th, 1992, changed life in SouthEast Asia forever. The earthquake and tsunami that tore through the region, killing thousands and displacing many more, was particularly devastating to the inhabitants of the relatively unknown city of Maumere. Here we learn more about how it has changed the lives of people, and their home, forever.

The magnitude 7.8 earthquake, hitting off the coast of Flores, Indonesia, triggered a 36 metre high tsunami, killing over 2000 people, and displacing more than 5000. According to sources, 18 000 homes were lost on that day, 113 schools destroyed and hundreds of roads, buildings and other vital infrastructure was lost. Most affected were the Sikka Regency, Ngada Regency, Ende Regency and East Flores Regency, and worst hit of all was the city of Maumere.

Tsunami Maumere

The Nusa Tengarra region is an active earthquake region, and to date, there have been over 24 major earthquakes recorded here. The high level of seismic activity is due to shifting tectonic plates underneath Indonesia. The Eurasian (Sunda) Plate and Australian Plate (Sahul Shelf) meet with two oceanic plates, the Philippine Sea Plate and Pacific Plate, causing dramatic seismic ruptures in the region.

The 1992 earthquake originated under the ocean floor, just north of Maumere. It triggered the tsunami that started in Tanjung Palaboko (west) spanning to Tanjung Bunga (east). In Maumere, the capital of the Sikka Regency, the earthquake was felt so strongly that it immediately caused hundreds of buildings to collapse. Some coastal villages sank because of the sinking land mass, and a few minutes after this first disaster, when people were still in shock and with many casualties, the ocean started to rise, with the first of the high waves hitting the coast.

tsunami

The tsunami sent walls of water towards the coastline, obliterating buildings, and washing ships ashore and even tossing up the cement-laden pontoons usually found on the seabed off Maumere. The destructive power of the tsunami intensified, as waves entered the narrow bays, causing the waves to surge even higher and severly impact places like Maumere Bay and Hading Bay. Subsidence of the land occurred in two locations around Hading Bay (Larantuka) causing the land to drop to a height of 40 metres in some places, and spanning over a kilometre in length, wiping out entitre coastal communities. And of course, it was devastating to the people of Indonesia, with countless lives lost in many locations, and in particular at Babi Island and Tanjung Bunga.

In Maumere, the tsunami and earthquake devastated more than just the land and its beautiful people. It also wiped out much of its reefs and marine life, vital for the economy of coastal villages like Maumere. The landscape of Maumere was changed forever on that day, 27 years ago. However with time and the input of many amazing organisations and individuals, the region has recovered and rebuilt. In fact, the tsunami and earthquake created some surprising new features in the region. Near the severely impacted Babi Island, a tsunami fault formed at a depth of 10-16 metres under the sea. Now known as ‘The Crack’, this natural fracture in the seabed has become densely populated with corals and marine life, and is now a popular dive spot. One of only four in the world (the others are found in Thailand, Maldives, and Sri Lanka), it attracts divers and tourists who are keen to explore and dive the very special natural phenomenon. From West Alok District in the west, to Talibura District in the east, there are 30 dive sites to choose from, with vibrant underwater coral reefs teeming with healthy marine life, fish, seaweeds and the stunning Lembeh sea dragon. It took some time, but Maumere, Babi Islands and ‘The Crack’ are proof of the irrepressible natural beauty of Indonesia.

Tsunami Maumere Flores

Gempa Bumi Flores 1992

https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gempa_bumi_Flores_1992

Gempa bumi Flores Desember 1992 ialah gempa bumi berkekuatan 7,8 pada skala Richter di lepas pantai Flores, Indonesia. Terjadi pada 12 Desember 1992 pada pukul 13:29 WITA. Gempa bumi ini menyebabkan tsunami setinggi 36 meter yang menghancurkan rumah di pesisir pantai Flores, membunuh setidaknya 2.100 jiwa, 500 orang hilang, 447 orang luka-luka, dan 5.000 orang mengungsi.

Gempa ini sedikitnya menghancurkan 18.000 rumah, 113 sekolah, 90 tempat ibadah, dan lebih dari 65 tempat lainnya. Kabupaten yang terkena gempa ini ialah Kabupaten Sikka, Kabupaten Ngada, Kabupaten Ende, dan Kabupaten Flores Timur.

Kota yang paling parah ialah Maumere. Lebih dari 1.000 bangunan hancur dan rusak berat.

https://tirto.id/sejarah-gempa-dan-tsunami-flores-1992-gerak-sesar-di-sarang-lindu-dbFi

Di Maumere, ibu kota Kabupaten Sikka, gempa terasa begitu kuat dan membikin ratusan bangunan runtuh. Bahkan beberapa kampung pesisir tenggelam karena daratan yang ambles. Lalu dalam beberapa menit, air laut perlahan naik dan gelombang tinggi menerjang pesisir setelahnya. Sejarak 75 hingga 300 meter daratan pesisir utara Flores porak-poranda dilamun air laut.

Daya rusak tsunami di beberapa titik jadi kian besar karena gelombang masuk ke teluk yang menyempit. Itu paling parah terjadi di Teluk Maumere dan Teluk Hading yang termasuk wilayah Larantuka.

http://geomagz.geologi.esdm.go.id/memantau-gempa-flores-tahun-1992/

Daerah Nusa Tenggara dan sekitarnya adalah daerah gempa bumi aktif dan sampai saat ini telah tercatat lebih dari 24 gempa besar terjadi di sini. Aktivitas gempa yang tinggi ini terutama disebabkan oleh penyusupan lempeng (tektonik) Australia ke arah utara di bawah lempeng Asia. Gerakan ini diimbangi oleh terjadinya penyusupan lempeng ke arah selatan di utara Flores dan Pantar-Alor.

Tsunami muncul akibat gempa Flores 1992. Gempa ini jenis gempa tektonik di bawah laut dengan magnitudo 6,8 SR yang berpusat di sebelah utara Maumere sekitar 122,1°BT dan 8° 7’LS. Tunami yang muncul menyebabkan bencana yang cukup besar di sepanjang pantai utara Pulau Flores termasuk pulaupulaunya, mulai sekitar Tanjung Palaboko (bagian barat) sampai Tanjung Bunga (bagian timur). Tsunami berupa gelombang air laut yang menyapu daratan yang terletak pada jarak lk 75-300 m dari garis pantai, menyebabkan kerusakan bangunan, kapal yang sedang berlayar terdampar ke darat, dan ponton bermuatan semen yang terdampar di dasar laut telah terangkat ke darat. Di samping kerusakan tersebut, telah terjadi pula amblesan (subsidence) di dua lokasi di sekitar Teluk Hading (Larantuka) dengan panjang kl. 1-1,2 km, lebar 100-150 m, dan tinggi 25-40 m. Kejadian tsunami ini juga telah menimbulkan korban jiwa paling banyak di Pulau Babi dan Tanjung Bunga.

http://mytrip.co.id/Article/Events/News/439/underwater-maumere-dan-patahan-tsunami-1992-yang-jadi-favorit

Oleh karena Maumere dihantam tsunami pada 1992, sebagian besar kehidupan bawah lautnya hancur. Tapi bencana itu kemudian melahirkan berkah yang lain, karena sejak saat itu di dekat Pulau Babi yang paling parah kena gempa dan tsunami 1992, terbentuk patahan tsunami di kedalaman 10-16 m yang kini ditumbuhi banyak koral dan menjadi amat cantik. Tak ayal patahan yang diberi nama The Crack ini kini menjadi titik selam favorit. Lokasi selam berupa patahan bawah laut yang seperti ini hanya ada 4 di dunia yakni di Thailand, Maldives, Sri Lanka dan Maumere Indonesia.

Keindahan bawah laut Teluk Maumere membentang dari Kecamatan Alok Barat di barat dan Kecamatan Talibura di timur. Ada 30 dive sites dengan aneka ragam terumbu karang warna-warni yang masih sehat, ikan-ikan maupun makhluk makro yang siap memanjakan mata dan batin para penyelam. Bahkan Lembeh sea dragon juga ditemukan di Teluk Maumere ini.

Written by: Suzanne Srdarov, Fadrik Aziz Firdausi, Principal Engineer at the Geological Museum

Edited by: Clare Srdarov, The Travellist for The Voice of Flores

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